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Q1. - (Topic 3) 

Users have been complaining that their Frame Relay connection to the corporate site is very slow. The network administrator suspects that the link is overloaded. Based on the partial output of the Router # show frame relay pvc command shown in the graphic, which output value indicates to the local router that traffic sent to the corporate site is experiencing congestion? 

A. DLCI=100 

B. last time PVC status changed 00:25:40 

C. in BECN packets 192 

D. in FECN packets 147 

E. in DF packets 0 

Answer:

Explanation: 

First we should grasp the concept of BECN & FECN through an example: 

Suppose Router A wants to send data to Router B through a Frame Relay network. If the network is congested, Switch 1 (a DCE device) will set the FECN bit value of that frame to 1, indicating that frame experienced congestion in the path from source to destination. This frame is forwarded to Switch 2 and to Router B (with the FECN bit = 1). Switch 1 knows that the network is congesting so it also sends frames back to Router A with BECN bit set to 1 to inform that path through the network is congested. 

In general, BECN is used on frames traveling away from the congested area to warn source devices that congestion has occurred on that path while FECN is used to alert receiving devices if the frame experiences congestion. 

BECN also informs the transmitting devices to slow down the traffic a bit until the network returns to normal state. The question asks “which output value indicates to the local router that traffic sent to the corporate site is experiencing congestion” which means it asks about the returned parameter which indicates congestion ->BECN. 


Q2. - (Topic 2) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

The network associate is configuring OSPF on the Core router. All the connections to the branches should be participating in OSPF. The link to the ISP should NOT participate in OSPF and should only be advertised as the default route. What set of commands will properly configure the Core router? 

A. Core(config-router)# default-information originate Core(config-router)# network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area 0 Core(config-router)# exit Core(config)# ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.10.2.14 

B. Core(config-router)# default-information originate Core(config-router)# network 10.10.2.13 0.0.0.242 area 0 Core(config-router)# exit Core(config)# ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.10.2.14 

C. Core(config-router)# default-information originate Core(config-router)# network 10.10.2.16 0.0.0.15 area 0 Core(config-router)# exit Core(config)# ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.10.2.14 

D. Core(config-router)# default-information originate Core(config-router)# network 10.10.2.32 0.0.0.31 area 0 Core(config-router)# exit Core(config)# ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.10.2.14 

Answer:

Explanation: 

There are two ways to inject a default route into a normal area.1. If the ASBR already has the default route in its routing table, you can advertise theexisting 0.0.0.0/0 into the OSPF domain with the default-information originate router configuration command.2. If the ASBR doesn’t have a default route, you can add the keyword always to the default-information originate command (default-information originate always).This command will advertise a default route into the OSPF domain, regardless of whether it has a route to 0.0.0.0. Another benefit of adding always keyword is that it can add stability to the internetwork. For example, if the ASBR is learning a default route from another routing domain such as RIP and this route is flapping, then without the always keyword, each time the route flaps, the ASBR will send a new Type 5 LSA into the OSPF domain causing some instability inside the OSPF domain. With the always keyword, the ASBR will advertise the default inside the OSPF domain always, In the example shown here, only choice C is correct as the wildcard mask correctly specifies the 10.10.2.16 0.0.0.15 networks, which include all IP addresses in the 10.10.2.16-10.10.2.31 range. In this question we were told that the ISP link should NOT be configured for OSPF, making choice A incorrect. http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk365/technologies_configuration_example09186a00801 ec9f0.shtml 


Q3. - (Topic 1) 

Which two states are the port states when RSTP has converged? (Choose two.) 

A. discarding 

B. listening 

C. learning 

D. forwarding 

E. disabled 

Answer: A,D 

Explanation: 

Understanding Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (802.1w) 

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk389/tk621/technologies_white_paper09186a0080094cf a.shtml 

Port States There are only three port states left in RSTP that correspond to the three possible operational states. The 802.1D disabled, blocking, and listening states are merged into a unique 802.1w discarding state. RSTP only has 3 port states which are discarding, learning and forwarding. When RSTP has converged there are only 2 port states left: discarding and forwarding. 


Q4. - (Topic 2) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

Given the output for this command, if the router ID has not been manually set, what router ID will OSPF use for this router? 

A. 10.1.1.2 

B. 10.154.154.1 

C. 172.16.5.1 

D. 192.168.5.3 

Answer:

Explanation: 

CCNA Tutorial: The OSPF Router ID (RID) http://www.thebryantadvantage.com/CCNACertificationExamTutorialOSPFRouterIDRID.ht m 

When determining the Router ID (RID) of an OSPF-enabled router, OSPF will always use the numerically highest IP address on the router’s loopback interfaces, regardless of whether that loopback is OSPF-enabled. 

What if there is no loopback? OSPF will then use the numerically highest IP address of the physical interfaces, regardless of whether that interface is OSPF-enabled. 


Q5. - (Topic 2) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

Assume that all router interfaces are operational and correctly configured. In addition, assume that OSPF has been correctly configured on router R2. How will the default route configured on R1 affect the operation of R2? 

A. Any packet destined for a network that is not directly connected to router R1 will be dropped. 

B. Any packet destined for a network that is not directly connected to router R2 will be dropped immediately. 

C. Any packet destined for a network that is not directly connected to router R2 will be dropped immediately because of the lack of a gateway on R1. 

D. The networks directly connected to router R2 will not be able to communicate with the 172.16.100.0, 172.16.100.128, and 172.16.100.64 subnetworks. 

E. Any packet destined for a network that is not referenced in the routing table of router R2 will be directed to R1. R1 will then send that packet back to R2 and a routing loop will occur. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

First, notice that the more-specific routes will always be favored over less-specific routes regardless of the administrative distance set for a protocol. In this case, because we use OSPF for three networks (172.16.100.0 0.0.0.3, 172.16.100.64 0.0.0.63, 172.16.100.128 0.0.0.31) so the packets destined for these networks will not be affected by the default route. The default route configured on R1 "ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 serial0/0 will send any packet whose destination network is not referenced in the routing table of router R1 to R2, it doesn't drop anything so answers A, B and C are not correct. D is not correct too because these routes are declared in R1 and the question says that "OSPF has been correctly configured on router R2, so network directly connected to router R2 can communicate with those three subnetworks. As said above, the default route configured on R1 will send any packet destined for a network that is not referenced in its routing table to 

R2; R2 in turn sends it to R1 because it is the only way and a routing loop will occur. 


Q6. - (Topic 3) 

Which protocol is an open standard protocol framework that is commonly used in VPNs, to provide secure end-to-end communications? 

A. RSA 

B. L2TP 

C. IPsec 

D. PPTP 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) is a technology protocol suite for securing Internet Protocol (IP) communications by authenticating and/or encrypting each IP packet of a communication session. IPsec also includes protocols for establishing mutual authentication between agents at the beginning of the session and negotiation of cryptographic keys to be used during the session. 


Q7. - (Topic 1) 

Which three statements are typical characteristics of VLAN arrangements? (Choose three.) 

A. A new switch has no VLANs configured. 

B. Connectivity between VLANs requires a Layer 3 device. 

C. VLANs typically decrease the number of collision domains. 

D. Each VLAN uses a separate address space. 

E. A switch maintains a separate bridging table for each VLAN. 

F. VLANs cannot span multiple switches. 

Answer: B,D,E 

Explanation: 

By default, all ports on a new switch belong to VLAN 1 (default & native VLAN). There are also some well-known VLANs (for example: VLAN 1002 for fddi-default; VLAN 1003 for token-ring…) configured by default -> A is not correct. To communicate between two different VLANs we need to use a Layer 3 device like router or Layer 3 switch -> B is correct. VLANs don’t affect the number of collision domains, they are the same -> C is not correct. Typically, VLANs increase the number of broadcast domains.We must use a different network (or sub-network) for each VLAN. For example we can use 192.168.1.0/24 for VLAN 1, 192.168.2.0/24 for VLAN 2 -> D is correct. A switch maintains a separate bridging table for each VLAN so that it can send frame to 

ports on the same VLAN only. For example, if a PC in VLAN 2 sends a frame then the 

switch look-ups its bridging table and only sends frame out of its ports which belong to 

VLAN 2 (it also sends this frame on trunk ports) -> E is correct. 

We can use multiple switches to expand VLAN -> F is not correct. 


Q8. - (Topic 2) 

Which statements are true about EIGRP successor routes? (Choose two.) 

A. A successor route is used by EIGRP to forward traffic to a destination. 

B. Successor routes are saved in the topology table to be used if the primary route fails. 

C. Successor routes are flagged as 'active' in the routing table. 

D. A successor route may be backed up by a feasible successor route. 

E. Successor routes are stored in the neighbor table following the discovery process. 

Answer: A,D 

Explanation: 

Introduction to EIGRP http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk365/technologies_tech_note09186a0080093f07.shtml 

Feasible Successors A destination entry is moved from the topology table to the routing table when there is a feasible successor. All minimum cost paths to the destination form a set. From this set, the neighbors that have an advertised metric less than the current routing table metric are considered feasible successors. 

Feasible successors are viewed by a router as neighbors that are downstream with respect to the destination. 

These neighbors and the associated metrics are placed in the forwarding table. 

When a neighbor changes the metric it has been advertising or a topology change occurs in the network, the set of feasible successors may have to be re-evaluated. However, this is not categorized as a route recomputation. 


Q9. - (Topic 2) 

What is the default maximum number of equal-cost paths that can be placed into the routing table of a Cisco OSPF router? 

A. 2 

B. 4 

C. 16 

D. unlimited 

Answer:

Explanation: 

4 is the default number of routes that OSPF will include in routing table if more than 4 equal cost routes exist for the same subnet. However, OSPF can include up to 16 equal cost routes in the routing table and perform load balancing amongst them. In order to configure this feature, you need to use the OSPF subcommand maximum-paths, i.e. maximum-paths 16. 


Q10. - (Topic 2) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

Host A pings interface S0/0 on router 3, what is the TTL value for that ping? 

A. 253 

B. 252 

C. 255 

D. 254 

Answer:

Explanation: 

From the CCNA ICND2 Exam book: “Routers decrement the TTL by 1 every time they forward a packet; if a router decrements the TTL to 0, it throws away the packet. This prevents packets from rotating forever.” I want to make it clear that before the router forwards a packet, the TTL is still remain the same. For example in the topology above, pings to S0/1 and S0/0 of Router 2 have the same TTL. 

The picture below shows TTL values for each interface of each router and for Host B. 

Notice that Host A initializes ICMP packet with a TTL of 255: